Polynesian Tattoos and Tattoo Designs
Polynesian Art and American Interpretation
ï¿½ï¿½He tini nga whetu e ngaro I te kapua itiï¿½ï¿½
The Polynesian islands (which include Samoa, The Cook Islands, Easter Island, Tonga, French Polynesia, Tahiti, and our own Hawaii, just to name a few) have been a popular tourist destination across the United States and the world at large. There is something about the relaxed, friendly, colorful people that keeps us regularly coming back for more. With a history and culture quite different from our own, the traditions, mythology and artistic expression of this area has spread to the world abroad, one foreign visitor at a time.
ï¿½ï¿½Discoveredï¿½ï¿½ in the 1500ï¿½ï¿½s, it wouldnï¿½ï¿½t be for two or three more centuries that the Polynesian islands would begin to command much attention from the world at large. This attention came at a high price for the native inhabitants. By the time the missionaries arrived and got settled down, they quickly strived to erase a good portion of the native culture, from the seductive dancing of the native women to the widely used practice of tattoo.
As a matter of fact, the widely popular tribal tattoo style of today can be traced back to the Pacific Rim and Southeast Asia. Even the word ï¿½ï¿½tattooï¿½ï¿½ is said to have derived from that area. Polynesians used the word ï¿½ï¿½tataoï¿½ï¿½ meaning ï¿½ï¿½to tapï¿½ï¿½. Tahitians used the word ï¿½ï¿½tatuï¿½ï¿½, which means to mark something. Tattoo, the word most commonly used today, was said to have been penned by Caption Cook when he explored those same areas.
Fortunately, today things are much more relaxed, and the native culture of the many different Polynesian islands is able to be expressed much more freely. Recently, the first international festival of tattooing was organized in this area in April of 2000 on the ï¿½ï¿½sacred islandï¿½ï¿½ of Raiatea. It gathered 50 tattoo masters from all over the world and was a huge success.
A Gallery of Popular Polynesian Tattoo Designs
There are two different types of Polynesian (or Tahitian, words weï¿½ï¿½ll use interchangeably) tattoo. The first is Enata. Enata designs are natural designs that come to symbolize a personï¿½ï¿½s life history, island of origin, social level, type of work done, etc. For example, if you were a fisherman, you might have a symbol that is there to protect you from dangerous sharks, or to protect your fishing vessel.
The other type of Polynesian tattoo is the Etua. This form has a much stronger spiritual, magical or religious meaning to it. These symbols might show particular honor to one or more people in a tribe, or offer protection from (as in, ï¿½ï¿½byï¿½ï¿½) the gods.
However, the more popular Polynesian tattoos of today carry a slightly less weighty meaning. The most popular and appreciated designs are the tiki, the turtle, the gecko, the ray, the shark, the dolphin, as well as a lot of abstract symbolic designs. In order to receive these tattoos, it isnï¿½ï¿½t necessary to go through any rites of passage, or to sit before the special tattoo shaman to be marked. All you need to have is access to a tattoo artist, a design you like, and the money to pay for it to be done.
Despite that fact, following an ancient tradition, many of the Polynesian tattoo designs which are so popular today earned that esteem because of what they traditionally stand for or symbolize.
Tiki: Tiki is a god, most often depicted with his eyes closed. His eyes are closed because Tiki is reported to smell trouble before he sees it.
Shells: Shells represent wealth to the Polynesian cultures, most likely because they were used as a type of currency.
Sharksï¿½ï¿½ teeth: Tattoos of sharksï¿½ï¿½ teeth denote protection.
Sharks: Sharks were sacred animals. Powerful and mighty, Polynesian shark tattoos were often used as a protection from enemies.
Turtles: Turtles symbolized fertility and long life.
Gecko: The gecko is supposed to have supernatural powers, and is regarded by Polynesians with fear and awe. It is rumored that if a green gecko ï¿½ï¿½laughsï¿½ï¿½ at you, itï¿½ï¿½s a terrible omen of illness and bad fortune.
While hardly covering all, or even a good portion, of the Polynesian tattoo designs that are available today, this should give a pretty good idea of what you could expect to find on your search for your own personally perfect design.
The art of tattoo in the Polynesian islands has lived and learned to be a bit like the old Maori proverb we heard earlier. Just as the stars cannot be eclipsed by a lone, small cloud, so too, the practice and history of tattoo werenï¿½ï¿½t lost. It has even managed to experience a new rebirth and popularity despite the fact that missionaries and other foreigners tried to abolish this rich cultural tradition.
Now, in addition to a wide popularity in the States, tattoo has once again found itself back at home in the Polynesian islands, and again are being administered by the local tattoo shamans and artists who picture taking back their traditional role and meaning in this rich, magical, tranquil paradise.